#1. What does heliotherapy use to treat disease?
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists either of exposure to daylight or some equivalent form of light as a treatment for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), or exposure of the skin to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light to treat a skin condition. It is used as a treatment for wintertime seasonal affective disorder and in circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase disorder. There is tentative evidence to support its use to treat non-seasonal psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression and depression in bipolar disorder. As a treatment for disorders of the skin, the second kind of light therapy, called ultraviolet light therapy, is meant to correct psoriasis, acne vulgaris, eczema and neonatal jaundice.
#2. Just like hemoglobin contains iron, chlorophyll also contains a metal ion. Which metal is it?
The active center of chlorophyll consists of a magnesium ion (Mg2 ) bound by four nitrogen atoms. The remainder of the molecule consists only of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen with most variants of chlorophyll either having 35 or 55 carbon atoms in a complex structure featuring five additional rings around the central C12N4 ring.
#3. Which of these items of hardware is an output device (i.e., a monitor is output, as it gives the user information)?
Keyboards, mouses and joysticks are all input devices; you give the computer information using them. Output and input are types of hardware, meaning stuff you can touch, whilst, if you’re currently using a PC, this browser is an item of software, like word processing programs or media players.
#4. We have all heard of USB ports, but what does the acronym "USB" actually stand for?
Universal Serial Bus is the successor to the older RS232 serial connection, allowing quicker and more stable information transfer, and non-specific pluggable storage abilities.
#5. The Pitch Drop Experiment, at the University of Queensland, is the longest continuously running laboratory experiment, and is used to demonstrate what property of liquids?
A pitch drop experiment is a long-term experiment which measures the flow of a piece of pitch over many years. ‘Pitch’ is the name for any of a number of highly viscous liquids which appear solid, most commonly bitumen. At room temperature, tar pitch flows at a very low rate, taking several years to form a single drop. The best-known version of the experiment was started in 1927 by Professor Thomas Parnell of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, to demonstrate to students that some substances which appear solid are actually highly viscous fluids. Parnell poured a heated sample of pitch into a sealed funnel and allowed it to settle for three years. In 1930, the seal at the neck of the funnel was cut, allowing the pitch to start flowing. A glass dome covers the funnel and it is placed on display outside a lecture theatre. Large droplets form and fall over a period of about a decade.
#6. Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson began hosting the television series "Cosmos: A SpaceTime Odyssey" in March 2014. The series was a sequel to which scientist's series "Cosmos: A Personal Journey?"
The 13 part series also aired on both Fox and the National Geographic Channel. The original “Cosmos” series was seen by more than 750 million viewers in over 175 countries and won both Emmy and Peabody prizes.
#7. Endometrium is a medical term. What does it mean?
The endometrium is the innermost lining layer of the uterus, and functions to prevent adhesions between the opposed walls of the myometrium, thereby maintaining the patency of the uterine cavity. During the menstrual cycle or estrous cycle, the endometrium grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer.
#8. The name of the element rhenium comes from the Latin for which river?
Rhenium was discovered in 1925 in Germany by Ida Noddack, Walter Noddack and Otto Carl Berg. A silvery metal, it is one of the most expensive to produce, and has diverse uses including jet engine alloys, catalysts in the petroleum industry and cancer treatment. The name comes from the Latin, “Rhenus”, for the Rhine
#9. Thrombosis is a painful and possibly fatal condition that occurs in blood vessels like arteries and veins. What is thrombosis?
Blood clots are formed due to clustering of platelets and the protein fibrin. Fibrin exists as fibrinogen in the blood normally and gets converted to the active form when thrombin acts on it. Thrombosis in the arteries can cause necrosis. Thrombosis in the veins can ultimately lead to a clot in the lungs.
#10. Which natural product has been used for intravenous rehydration on patients when medical saline was not available?
Coconut water is the clear fluid found inside green coconuts. This is not the same as coconut milk, which is the liquid residue from grated mature coconut. Today, more than anything else, coconut water is sold as a popular refreshing drink in Asian and Caribbean countries. It has, however, been used to rehydrate patients intravenously when medical saline supplies were not unavailable. This procedure originated during World War II in areas where the allies and Japanese forces were fighting, to treat desperately ill casualties, and again for patients during the Khmer Rouge atrocities in Cambodia. It certainly isn’t recommended by doctors today as its overuse can prove fatal, but only if absolutely no other means of rehydration can be found. Good old mother nature.